There are three known subspecies of the Mantled Howler.
The Ecuadorian Mantled Howler, binomial name Alouatta palliata aequatorialis, is located in Columbia, Panama, Peru, Ecuador, and Costa Rica. They are listed as vulnerable and considered endangered due to habitat loss and poaching.
The Golden-mantled Howler, binomial name Alouatta palliata palliata, is the most common and located in Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. They are listed as a least-concern due to their healthy population.
The Mexican Howler, binomial name Alouatta palliata mexicana, is only found in Guatemala and Mexico, they are critically endangered and close to extinction due to massive amounts of habitat loss, it is expected to lose more than 80% of its population within the next 3 generations and possibly be extinct after this. This subspecies is in extreme danger.
The species name is palliata, and there are three subspecies (as shown above). The Mantled Howler belongs to the Genus Alouatta of which all the other howlers belong, and Alouatta belongs to the Family Atelidae which is one of the four in the New World Monkeys. Within Atelidae are the howlers, the spider monkeys, the woolly monkeys, and some extinct relatives. Atelidae belongs to the Parvorder Platyrrhini, which includes all of the New World Monkeys, such as the world’s smallest monkey, the Pygmy Marmoset to the sakis, and the squirrel monkeys. Platyrrhini belongs to the Infraorder Simiiformes of which we are members, and all in this Infraorder are called simians. From here on out it is a journey to all of our mammal relatives, as Simiiformes belongs to Suborder Haplorrhini which includes tarsiers and other relatives. Haplorrhini belongs to the Order Primates which includes our relatives like the lemur. Primates are all Euarchontoglires, which is the Superorder we belong to, and that includes our extinct relatives the Plesiadapiformes, the colugos, the treeshrews, and more distantly (being the Glires) rabbits, hares, pikas, and rodents. Euarchontoglires evolved in the late Cretaceous, before the Dinosaurs went extinct, starting way back some 80-90 million years ago - of course 65 million years ago that changed as the Dinosaurs went extinct. Euarchontoglires belong to the Infraclass Eutheria (placental mammals) which belongs to the Subclass Theria (all but monotremes) and that belongs to the Class Mammalia (All mammals).
They are very athletic when the need arises, and their locomotion is determined by their environment. Aided by their prehensile tail they can navigate the trees they live in and will leap from one limb to another if it must. They are an arboreal, meaning they are a tree-dweller, in addition to being diurnal, active in the day, and they mostly climb, walk, or run with all four hands and feet. They usually don’t do anything if they don’t have to however, as they are an exceptionally lazy and inactive monkey due to their very low energy diet - they are nearly comparable to the sloth, as they spend most of their active period eating and their social time is less than five percent. They do live in groups, and they number around 20 to 40 members, and when a young monkey reaches maturity they are usually evicted.
Interesting facts about the Mantled Howler:
They may use tools, as relatives have been recorded shooing away sloths that decided to walk into their trees, such as sticks.
Picture of the mantled howler © by Leonardo C. Fleck, licensed under GFDL
The Golden-mantled howling monkey, mantled howler monkey is listed as Least Concern. Does not qualify for a more at risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category, on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Namings for the mantled howler monkeyA young / baby of a mantled howler monkey is called a 'infant'. A mantled howler monkey group is called a 'troop, barrel, tribe or cartload'.
Some facts about the
Mantled howler monkey
Adult weight : 7 kg (15.4 lbs)
Maximum longevity : 24 years
Female maturity :1095 days
Male maturity : 1278 days
Gestation : 186 days
Weaning : 433 days
Litter size : 1
Litters per year : 1
Interval between litters : 384 days
Weight at birth : 0.409 kg (0.8998 lbs)
Weight at weaning : 1.1 kg (2.42 lbs)
Basal metabolic rate : 11 W
Body mass : 4.67 kg (10.274 lbs)
Temperature : 35.85 °C (96.53 °F)